Earthworm Biology

What are Earthworms?

The term Earthworm refers to a specific group of invertebrates within the taxonomic phylum Annelida. Earthworms belong to the Oligochaetes-which means 'few bristles' and are represented by 31 species of earthworm here in the British Isles. Worldwide there are over 5,000 species described and advances in taxonomy using DNA is changing this, highlighting new species and new subspecies. Earthworms are, as their name suggests, terrestrial, their skin is permeable and they need a moist environment so they don't dry out. The different species of earthworms have individual requirements just as a dog has from a cat, some earthworm species live in compost, some live in permanent burrows deep down in the soil, others are content with the middle ground and make complex networks of tunnels as they explore the earth. There is still a lot we don't know about them, and the Earthworm Society of Britain aims to improve this!

Annelida taxonomy diagram

Earthworm structure

An earthworm consists of a digestive tube housed within a thick cylindrical muscular tube that forms the body. The body is divided into segments, and furrows on the surface of the body mark the division between each segment.

The first segment encloses the mouth, and has a fleshy, muscular lobe on the top. This lobe can be pulled in to seal the mouth, or extended forward to probe the immediate surroundings. All segments, except the first, have eight retractable bristles which help the earthworm to grip surfaces as it moves.The picture below, taken from , shows some of the internal features of an adult earthworm.

Internal features of an adult earthworm (c) Field Studies Council and Natural History Museum, London (all rights reserved). Illustration by Louise Berridge. 

Want to learn more about earthworm biology?

Did you know that Charles Darwin was one of the first earthworm biologists? Kerry Calloway discusses Charles Darwin's earthworm research in this FSC Virtual Meetup. Find out about how Charles Darwin investigated earthworm intelligence, earthworm senses and burial of objects in this fascinating talk.

Except where otherwise indicated, this work was created by Emma Sherlock on behalf of the Earthworm Society of Britain and is licensed under a .